Die Abtei Montecassino (auch Monte Cassino; lat. Abbatia Territorialis Montis Cassini) ist das Mutterkloster (lateinisch Archicoenobium Montis Casini; monte casino ist der „Berg (oberhalb) von Casino“) der Benediktiner in der Provinz Frosinone in Italien. . Montecassino heute mit polnischer Gedenkstätte im Vordergrund. Er birgt alle deutschen Soldaten, die im südlichen Teil des italienischen war damals völlig zerstört, das weltberühmte Kloster Montecassino ist durch einen. Die Abtei Montecassino (auch Monte Cassino; lat. Abbatia Territorialis Montis Cassini) ist das Mutterkloster (lateinisch Archicoenobium Montis Casini; monte casino ist der „Berg (oberhalb) von Casino“) der Benediktiner in der Provinz Frosinone in Italien. . Montecassino heute mit polnischer Gedenkstätte im Vordergrund.
Da det amerikanske 6. Igen indledtes slaget derfor, uden at angriberne var fuldt forberedte. Dette blev dokumenteret efter krigen af generalmajor Howard Kippenberger , chefen for 2.
Den britiske presse og C. Sulzberger fra The New York Times skrev ofte og overbevisende og med mange ofte fabrikerede detaljer om tyske observationsposter og artilleristillinger inde i klosteret.
Han rapporterede til 5. Generalmajor Francis Tuker , hvis 4. Tuker gentog sine argumenter for at bombe klosteret fra sin hospitalsseng i Caserta, hvor han var indlagt efter et alvorligt tilbagevendende angreb af tropefeber.
Freyberg videresendte hans anmodning den Da han overgav 2. Bombardementet om morgenen den De kastede i alt 1. Ved daggry dagen efter bombardementet flygtede de fleste overlevende civile fra ruinerne.
Kun omkring 40 personer blev: Det skete den Om natten efter bombardementet angreb et kompagni af 1. Det fik en katastrofal start. Efter reorganisering blev angrebet sat ind ved midnat.
Om natten den Igen var kampene voldsomme, men uden fremskridt og tabene var store. Tanken var at rydde en passage gennem flaskehalsen mellem disse to punkter for at give adgang til stationen i syd og herfra til Liridalen.
Sagen blev ikke bedre af, at generalmajor Kippenberger, som var chef for den 2. Han blev erstattet med brigadegeneral Graham Parkinson.
Det tredje slag begyndte den Efter et bombardement med tons 1. Imidlertid kom forsvarerne sig hurtigere over bombardementet end ventet, og de allierede kampvogne blev forsinket af bombekratere.
Forsvaret var reorganiseret, og vigtigere var det, at det i modstrid med vejrudsigten begyndt at regne igen. Rajputana Rifles var blevet afvist.
Ved slutningen af den Et overraskende og kraftigt modangreb fra klosteret mod Castle Hill fra 1. Den allierede linje blev reorganiseret.
Af det tyske The first one which Benedict built in the temple itself was only twelve meters long and eight wide. From this, we can infer a fairly small community.
The second oratory, on the mountain-top, where the pagan altar had stood in the open air, was of the same width but somewhat longer Monte Cassino became a model for future developments.
Its prominent site has always made it an object of strategic importance. It was sacked or destroyed a number of times. A flourishing period of Monte Cassino followed its re-establishment in by Abbot Petronax , when among the monks were Carloman , son of Charles Martel ; Ratchis , predecessor of the great Lombard Duke and King Aistulf ; and Paul the Deacon , the historian of the Lombards.
In , a donation of Gisulf II of Benevento created the Terra Sancti Benedicti , the secular lands of the abbacy, which were subject to the abbot and nobody else save the Pope.
Thus, the monastery became the capital of a state comprising a compact and strategic region between the Lombard principality of Benevento and the Byzantine city-states of the coast Naples , Gaeta , and Amalfi.
In Saracens sacked and then burned it down,  and Abbot Bertharius was killed during the attack. Among the great historians who worked at the monastery, in this period there is Erchempert , whose Historia Langobardorum Beneventanorum is a fundamental chronicle of the ninth-century Mezzogiorno.
Monte Cassino was rebuilt and reached the apex of its fame in the 11th century under the abbot Desiderius abbot — , who later became Pope Victor III.
Monks caring for the patients in Monte Cassino constantly needed new medical knowledge. As Naples is situated on the crossroad of many seaways of Europe, Middle East and Asia, soon the monastery library was one of the richest in Europe.
All the knowledge of the civilizations of all the times and nations was accumulated in the Abbey of that time. The Benedictines translated into Latin and transcribed precious manuscripts.
The number of monks rose to over two hundred, and the library, the manuscripts produced in the scriptorium and the school of manuscript illuminators became famous throughout the West.
The unique Beneventan script flourished there during Desiderius' abbacy. Monks reading and copying the medical texts learnt a lot about human anatomy and methods of treatment, and then put their theoretic skills into practice at monastery hospital.
By the th centuries Monte Cassino became the most famous cultural, educational, and medical center of Europe with great library in Medicine and other sciences.
Many physicians came there for medical and other knowledge. That is why the first High Medical School in the world was soon opened in nearby Salerno which is considered today the first Institution of Higher Education in the world.
This school found its original base in the Benedictine Abbey of Monte Cassino still in the 9th century and later settled down in Salerno.
So, Montecassino and Benedictines played a great role in the progress of medicine and science in the Middle Ages, and with his life and work St.
Benedict himself exercised a fundamental influence on the development of European civilization and culture and helped Europe to emerge from the "dark night of history" that followed the fall of the Roman empire.
The buildings of the monastery were reconstructed in the 11th century on a scale of great magnificence, artists being brought from Amalfi, Lombardy, and even Constantinople to supervise the various works.
The abbey church, rebuilt and decorated with the utmost splendor, was consecrated in by Pope Alexander II. A detailed account of the abbey at this date exists in the Chronica monasterii Cassinensis by Leo of Ostia and Amatus of Monte Cassino gives us our best source on the early Normans in the south.
Abbot Desiderius sent envoys to Constantinople some time after to hire expert Byzantine mosaicists for the decoration of the rebuilt abbey church.
According to chronicler Leo of Ostia the Greek artists decorated the apse, the arch and the vestibule of the basilica. Their work was admired by contemporaries but was totally destroyed in later centuries except two fragments depicting greyhounds now in the Monte Cassino Museum.
Architectural historian Kenneth John Conant believed that Desiderius' rebuilding included pointed arches, and served as a major influence in the nascent development of Gothic architecture.
Abbot Hugh of Cluny visited Monte Cassino in , and five years later he began to build the third church at Cluny Abbey , which then included pointed arches and became a major turning point in medieval architecture.
An earthquake damaged the Abbey in , and although the site was rebuilt it marked the beginning of a long period of decline. In , Pope John XXII made the church of Monte Cassino a cathedral, and the carefully preserved independence of the monastery from episcopal interference was at an end.
That situation was reversed by Pope Urban V , a Benedictine, in The site was sacked by Napoleon 's troops in From the dissolution of the Italian monasteries in , Monte Cassino became a national monument.
The German military forces had established the kilometre mile Gustav Line , in order to prevent Allied troops from advancing northwards. The abbey itself however, was not initially utilised by the German troops as part of their fortifications, owing to General Kesselring 's regard for the historical monument.
The Gustav Line stretched from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coast in the east, with Monte Cassino itself overlooking Highway 6 and blocking the path to Rome.
On 15 February the abbey was almost completely destroyed in a series of heavy American-led air raids.
The bombing was conducted because many reports from the British commanders of the Indian troops on the ground suggested that Germans were occupying the monastery, and it was considered a key observational post by all those who were fighting in the field.
Subsequent investigations have since confirmed that the only people killed in the monastery by the bombing were Italian civilians seeking refuge there.
The Abbey was rebuilt after the war. During reconstruction, the abbey library was housed at the Pontifical Abbey of St Jerome-in-the-City.
In December , some 1, irreplaceable manuscript codices , chiefly patristic and historical, in addition to a vast number of documents relating to the history of the abbey and the collections of the Keats-Shelley Memorial House in Rome, had been sent to the abbey archives for safekeeping.
Julius Schlegel a Roman Catholic and Capt. Maximilian Becker a Protestant , both from the Panzer-Division Hermann Göring , had them transferred to the Vatican at the beginning of the battle.
Soldiers of the Reichsmarschall" , notes that trucks were loaded with monastic assets and art which had been stored there for safekeeping.
The trucks were loaded and left in October , and only "strenuous" protests resulted in their delivery to the Vatican, minus the 15 cases which contained the property of the Capodimonte Museum in Naples.
The two Moroccan-French divisions sustained 2, casualties in their struggles around Colle Belvedere.
It became the task of the U. They could then break through down into the Liri valley behind the Gustav Line defences. It was very tough going: Digging foxholes on the rocky ground was out of the question and each feature was exposed to fire from surrounding high points.
The ravines were no better since the gorse growing there, far from giving cover, had been sown with mines, booby-traps and hidden barbed wire by the defenders.
The Germans had had three months to prepare their defensive positions using dynamite and to stockpile ammunition and stores. There was no natural shelter and the weather was wet and freezing cold.
An American squad managed a reconnaissance right up against the cliff-like abbey walls, with the monks observing German and American patrols exchanging fire.
However, attempts to take Monte Cassino were broken by overwhelming machine gun fire from the slopes below the monastery.
Despite their fierce fighting, the 34th Division never managed to take the final redoubts on Hill known to the Germans as Calvary Mount , held by the 3rd Battalion of the 2nd Parachute Regiment , part of the 1st Parachute Division , the dominating point of the ridge to the monastery.
On 11 February, after a final unsuccessful 3-day assault on Monastery Hill and Cassino town, the Americans were withdrawn. II Corps, after two and a half weeks of torrid battle, was fought out.
The performance of the 34th Division in the mountains is considered to rank as one of the finest feats of arms carried out by any soldiers during the war.
At the height of the battle in the first days of February von Senger und Etterlin had moved the 90th Division from the Garigliano front to north of Cassino and had been so alarmed at the rate of attrition, he had " At the crucial moment von Senger was able to throw in the 71st Infantry Division whilst leaving the 15th Panzergrenadier Division whom they had been due to relieve in place.
During the battle there had been occasions when, with more astute use of reserves, promising positions might have been turned into decisive moves.
Some historians suggest this failure to capitalize on initial success could be put down to Clark's lack of experience.
However, it is more likely that he just had too much to do, being responsible for both the Cassino and Anzio offensives.
VI Corps under heavy threat at Anzio, Freyberg was under equal pressure to launch a relieving action at Cassino. Once again, therefore, the battle commenced without the attackers being fully prepared.
This was evidenced in the writing of Maj. Howard Kippenberger , commander of New Zealand 2nd Division, after the war,. Poor Dimoline Brigadier Dimoline , acting commander of 4th Indian Division was having a dreadful time getting his division into position.
I never really appreciated the difficulties until I went over the ground after the war. Freyberg's plan was a continuation of the first battle: Success would pinch out Cassino town and open up the Liri valley.
Freyberg had informed his superiors that he believed, given the circumstances, there was no better than a 50 per cent chance of success for the offensive.
Increasingly, the opinions of certain Allied officers were fixed on the great abbey of Monte Cassino: The British press and C. Sulzberger of The New York Times frequently and convincingly and in often manufactured detail wrote of German observation posts and artillery positions inside the abbey.
Eaker accompanied by Lieutenant General Jacob L. II Corps also flew over the monastery several times, reporting to Fifth Army G-2 he had seen no evidence that the Germans were in the abbey.
When informed of others' claims of having seen enemy troops there, he stated: Major General Kippenberger of the New Zealand Corps HQ held it was their view the monastery was probably being used as the Germans' main vantage point for artillery spotting, since it was so perfectly situated for it no army could refrain.
There is no clear evidence it was, but he went on to write that from a military point of view it was immaterial:. If not occupied today, it might be tomorrow and it did not appear it would be difficult for the enemy to bring reserves into it during an attack or for troops to take shelter there if driven from positions outside.
It was impossible to ask troops to storm a hill surmounted by an intact building such as this, capable of sheltering several hundred infantry in perfect security from shellfire and ready at the critical moment to emerge and counter-attack.
Undamaged it was a perfect shelter but with its narrow windows and level profiles an unsatisfactory fighting position. Smashed by bombing it was a jagged heap of broken masonry and debris open to effective fire from guns, mortars and strafing planes as well as being a death trap if bombed again.
On the whole I thought it would be more useful to the Germans if we left it unbombed. Major General Francis Tuker , whose 4th Indian Division would have the task of attacking Monastery Hill, had made his own appreciation of the situation.
In the absence of detailed intelligence at Fifth Army HQ, he had found a book dated in a Naples bookshop giving details of the construction of the abbey.
In his memorandum to Freyberg he concluded that regardless of whether the monastery was currently occupied by the Germans, it should be demolished to prevent its effective occupation.
He also pointed out that with foot 45 m high walls made of masonry at least 10 feet 3 m thick, there was no practical means for field engineers to deal with the place and that bombing with "blockbuster" bombs would be the only solution since 1, pound bombs would be "next to useless".
On 11 February , the acting commander of 4th Indian Division, Brigadier Harry Dimoline , requested a bombing raid. Tuker reiterated again his case from a hospital bed in Caserta, where he was suffering a severe attack of a recurrent tropical fever.
Freyberg transmitted his request on 12 February. The request, however, was greatly expanded by air force planners and probably supported by Ira Eaker and Jacob Devers, who sought to use the opportunity to showcase the abilities of U.
Army air power to support ground operations. Clark of Fifth Army and his chief of staff Major General Alfred Gruenther remained unconvinced of the "military necessity".
When handing over the U. Butler, deputy commander of U. All the fire has been from the slopes of the hill below the wall". In all they dropped 1, tons of high explosives and incendiary bombs on the abbey, reducing the entire top of Monte Cassino to a smoking mass of rubble.
Between bomb runs, the II Corps artillery pounded the mountain. Eaker and Devers watched; Juin was heard to remark " That same afternoon and the next day an aggressive follow-up of artillery and a raid by 59 fighter bombers wreaked further destruction.
The German positions on Point above and behind the monastery were untouched. Damningly, the air raid had not been coordinated with ground commands and an immediate infantry follow-up failed to materialize.
Its timing had been driven by the Air Force regarding it as a separate operation, considering the weather and requirements on other fronts and theaters without reference to ground forces.
Many of the troops had only taken over their positions from U. II Corps two days previously and besides the difficulties in the mountains, preparations in the valley had also been held up by difficulties in supplying the newly installed troops with sufficient material for a full-scale assault because of incessantly foul weather, flooding and waterlogged ground.
As a result, Indian troops on the Snake's Head were taken by surprise,  while the New Zealand Corps was two days away from being ready to launch their main assault.
It is certain from every investigation that followed since the event that the only people killed in the monastery by the bombing were Italian civilians seeking refuge in the abbey.
However, given the imprecision of bombing in those days it was estimated that only 10 per cent of the bombs from the heavy bombers, bombing from high altitude, hit the monastery bombs did fall elsewhere and killed German and Allied troops alike, although that would have been unintended.
Clark was doing paperwork at his desk. On the day after the bombing at first light, most of the civilians still alive fled the ruins.
Only about 40 people remained: After artillery barrages, renewed bombing and attacks on the ridge by 4th Indian Division, the monks decided to leave their ruined home with the others who could move at The old abbot was leading the group down the mule path toward the Liri valley, reciting the rosary.
After they arrived at a German first-aid station, some of the badly wounded who had been carried by the monks were taken away in a military ambulance.
After meeting with a German officer, the monks were driven to the monastery of Sant'Anselmo. After 3 April, he was not seen anymore.
It is now known that the Germans had an agreement not to use the abbey for military purposes. The assault failed, with the company sustaining 50 per cent casualties.
The following night the Royal Sussex Regiment was ordered to attack in battalion strength. There was a calamitous start.
Artillery could not be used in direct support targeting point because of the proximity and risk of shelling friendly troops.
It was planned therefore to shell point which had been providing supporting fire to the defenders of point The topography of the land meant that shells fired at had to pass very low over Snakeshead ridge and in the event some fell among the gathering assault companies.
After reorganising, the attack went in at midnight. The fighting was brutal and often hand to hand, but the determined defence held and the Royal Sussex battalion was beaten off, once again sustaining over 50 per cent casualties.
Over the two nights, the Royal Sussex Regiment lost 12 out of 15 officers and out of men who took part in the attack. On the night of 17 February the main assault took place.
This latter was across appalling terrain, but it was hoped that the Gurkhas , from the Himalayas and so expert in mountain terrain, would succeed.
This proved a faint hope. Once again the fighting was brutal, but no progress was made and casualties heavy. It became clear that the attack had failed and on 18 February Brigadier Dimoline and Freyberg called off the attacks on Monastery Hill.
The intention was to take a perimeter that would allow engineers to build a causeway for armoured support. Their isolation and lack of both armoured support and anti-tank guns made for a hopeless situation, however, when an armoured counter-attack by two tanks came in the afternoon on 18 February.
It had been very close. The Germans had been very alarmed by the capture of the station and from a conversation on record between Kesselring and Tenth Army commander Gen.
For the third battle, it was decided that whilst the winter weather persisted, fording the Garigliano river downstream of Cassino town was an unattractive option after the unhappy experiences in the first two battles.
The "right hook" in the mountains had also been a costly failure and it was decided to launch twin attacks from the north along the Rapido valley: The idea was to clear the path through the bottleneck between these two features to allow access towards the station on the south and so to the Liri valley.
British 78th Infantry Division , which had arrived in late February and placed under the command of New Zealand Corps, would then cross the Rapido downstream of Cassino and start the push to Rome.
None of the Allied commanders were very happy with the plan, but it was hoped that an unprecedented preliminary bombing by heavy bombers would prove the trump.
Three clear days of good weather were required and for twenty one successive days the assault was postponed as the troops waited in the freezing wet positions for a favourable weather forecast.
Matters were not helped by the loss of Major General Kippenberger, commanding 2 New Zealand Division, wounded by an anti-personnel mine and losing both his feet.
He was replaced by Brigadier Graham Parkinson; a German counter-attack at Anzio had failed and been called off.
The third battle began 15 March. After a bombardment of tons of 1,pound bombs with delayed action fuses,  starting at The bombing was not concentrated — only 50 per cent landed a mile or less from the target point and 8 per cent within 1, yards but between it and the shelling about half the paratroopers in the town had been killed.
Nevertheless success was there for the New Zealanders' taking, but by the time a follow-up assault on the left had been ordered that evening it was too late: Torrents of rain flooded bomb craters, turned rubble into a morass and blotted out communications, the radio sets being incapable of surviving the constant immersion.
The dark rain clouds also blotted out the moonlight, hindering the task of clearing routes through the ruins. On the right, the New Zealanders had captured Castle Hill and point and as planned, elements of Indian 4th Infantry Division, now commanded by Major General Alexander Galloway , had passed through to attack point and thence to point , Hangman's Hill.
However, the Germans were still able to reinforce their troops in the town and were proving adept at slipping snipers back into parts of the town that had supposedly been cleared.
However, a surprise and fiercely pressed counter-attack from the monastery on Castle Hill by the German 1st Parachute Division completely disrupted any possibility of an assault on the monastery from the Castle and Hangman's Hill whilst the tanks, lacking infantry support, were all knocked out by mid-afternoon.
On 20 March Freyberg committed elements of 78th Infantry Division to the battle; firstly to provide a greater troop presence in the town so that cleared areas would not be reinfiltrated by the Germans and secondly to reinforce Castle Hill to allow troops to be released to close off the two routes between Castle Hill and Points and being used by the Germans to reinforce the defenders in the town.
However, the defenders were resolute and the attack on Point to block the German reinforcement route had narrowly failed whilst in the town Allied gains were measured only house by house.
On 23 March Alexander met with his commanders. A range of opinions were expressed as to the possibility of victory but it was evident that the New Zealand and Indian Divisions were exhausted.In Fällen, die durch die Notwendigkeit der Nachforschung begründet sind, kann nach Genehmigung durch die zuständige deutschen Behörden Einsichtnahme in die Unterlagen der obengenannten Stellen gewährt werden. Falls es die italienische Regierung für notwendig erachten sollte, ein Friedhofsgrundstück aus dringendem Football Slot Machine - Play for Free Online with No Downloads Interesse einer anderen Verwendung zuzuführen, wird sie spiele online ohne anmeldung kostenlos anderes geeignetes Grundstück für den gleichen Zweck zur Verfügung stellen und die Umbettung der Toten und die gleichartige Ausgestaltung des neuen Friedhofs auf ihre Kosten übernehmen. E rinnerung und Gedenken funktionieren häufig unlogisch. Division, der am Die Abtei beherbergt ein Museum, das die bewegte Geschichte des Ortes nachzeichnet. Artikel 4 Die Exhumierung und Mr smith casino co uk der deutschen Kriegstoten und der Ausbau der deutschen Friedhöfe und Ehrenstätten werden von der Regierung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland auf ihre Kosten im Einvernehmen mit der Italienischen Regierung so schnell wie sunnyplayer casino app durchgeführt. Der Heilige Stuhl bestätigte öffentlich, dass sich Beste Spielothek in Härings finden der Bombardierung casino royale megashare deutsche Soldaten noch Kriegsgerät im Kloster befunden hätten. Benediktinerkloster in Italien Kloster 6. Dieses typisch deutsche Volksfest dürfte für die italienischen Gäste ein besonderes Erlebnis gewesen sein und noch lange in Erinnerung bleiben. IV Organo Corale C—c 4. In Fällen, die hostile takeover reserved slots die Notwendigkeit der Nachforschung begründet sind, kann nach Genehmigung durch die zuständige deutschen Baden baden casino kurhaus Einsichtnahme in die Unterlagen der obengenannten Stellen gewährt werden. Die Rickety Cricket Slot Machine - Play Online or on Mobile Now diesem Artikel vorgesehenen Befreiungen werden auf Antrag der Italienischen Regierung gewährt.